Rare Raptors: Amazing Birds of Prey

Find out why these uncommon raptor bird species, including hawks, owls, and kites, are some of the most captivating birds of prey.

Lesser-Known Raptor Bird Species

Birds of PreySteve and Dave Maslowski
Ospreys and other birds of prey are fascinating to watch.

Some might consider raptor birds the bad boys (and girls) of the bird world, but I think it’s unfortunate that they’ve acquired that reputation. Sure, their antics may seem gruesome, but they are among nature’s finest hunters. And yes, it seems that almost everyone has a tale of a Cooper’s hawk harassing backyard birds. But if you can forgive raptors for thinking of your songbirds as a buffet, they really are a collection of the most fascinating birds you’ll ever see. Many raptors are widespread and common, like red-tailed hawks, but let’s explore some of the lesser-known avian carnivores.

What foods do hawks eat?

Meet the Raptor Bird Family

great gray owlCourtesy Paul Danaher
Great gray owl

Lumped together not by taxonomy but by behavior, raptors make a living eating other critters. Also known as birds of prey, the raptor bird group includes hawks, eagles, owls, falcons, harriers, kites and ospreys. Some people include New World vultures and condors, too, but these species are really more like scavengers than true hunters.

Predatory birds share similar characteristics and adaptations, including sharp beaks and talons and strong feet. Interestingly, most raptors use their feet for harvesting their prey, while the beak’s function is to tear off bites of meat. To varying degrees, female raptors are often larger than their male counterparts; this allows the sexes to feed on different items of prey.

Some raptor species are generalists, eating a wide range of food that may include small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects and carrion. Others are very particular. Birds dominate the diet of accipiters, like the familiar Cooper’s and sharp-shinned hawks. On the other hand, many soaring hawks and the larger owls are specialized small-mammal predators. Smaller raptors tend to consume a larger percentage of insects.

Truly a collection of unique and intriguing birds, raptors have an unmatched grace and subtle beauty. They deserve respect, too: From the widespread American kestrel to the localized ferruginous pygmy-owl, being a bird of prey is a tough life.

Check out 5 essential hawk identification tips for birders.


Kites are a group of birds that have a somewhat limited range in the U.S., where they’re mostly confined to the Southeast and the West Coast. These medium-size raptors are also some of the most buoyant and graceful fliers. Their diet ranges from rodents to terrestrial snails, with insects making up a large portion of the intake of many kite species.

Mississippi Kite

Majestic Mississippi KiteCourtesy Jeannie Love
Majestic Mississippi kite

The most widespread among this group is the Mississippi kite. Long common in the southern Great Plains and the Southeast, this species has recently been establishing new nesting areas. Landscape changes to the north have created more kite-friendly habitats, and Mississippi kites now nest in Colorado, Ohio, New Hampshire and points in between. These birds will often catch insects on the wing and then consume them in flight.

Swallow-Tailed Kite

Birds of PreySteve and Dave Maslowski
Look for swallow-tailed kites in Florida.

The swallow-tailed kite is a striking white bird with black edging along the wings and a long, black, deeply forked tail. This kite is limited in range to the Gulf Coast and north along the Atlantic Seaboard to South Carolina. Familiar on the West Coast, the white-tailed kite can also be found along the southern tier from Arizona to Florida. White-tailed kites can be spotted hovering in flight before pouncing upon an unsuspecting rodent.

Southwestern Hawks

Like kites, a number of hawks are common in Mexico and areas south but have a limited range north of the border. You’ll need to visit the American Southwest to spot common black-hawks and gray, white-tailed, short-tailed and zone-tailed hawks.

Harris’s Hawk

raptor bird, Harris Hawks Parabuteo Unicinctus Are Gregarious Raptors That Often Live In Communal GroupsDave Welling
Harris’s hawks hunt in groups.

One species that’s a bit more widespread in the border region is the Harris’s hawk, found in the desert and brush country from Arizona to south Texas. The Harris’s hawk exhibits a rare raptor behavior called communal hunting. This species will remain together as a family unit, so the group can cooperatively hunt prey as large as jackrabbits.

Why do crows chase hawks?

Elf Owl

raptor bird, Elf Owl (Micrathene whitneyi), adult, Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Tucson, Arizona, USARolf Nussbaumer/Getty Images
An elf owl is much smaller than other owls

Another Southwestern species to look for is one of the smallest birds of prey—the elf owl. Found mostly in Arizona, this tiny raptor is about the size of a sparrow. Don’t let those adorable oversize eyes fool you, though. Elf owls are efficient insect predators.

Aplomado Falcon

Aplamado Falcon, raptor birdmallardg500/Getty Images
An Aplamado falcon resting on a perch

One other raptor worth mentioning is the Aplomado falcon. It was extirpated from the U.S. by the 1950s, but efforts to restore it to the Southwest have started to pay off. Like other falcons, this one feeds mostly on birds. This vibrant species has begun to bring a splash of color to the southern shrublands of Texas and New Mexico.

Northern Raptor Birds

Some raptor bird species eke out a living at the far northern edge of the continent, far away from most of us. Birds like the great gray owl, northern hawk owl, gyrfalcon and northern goshawk rarely venture south, except when extreme cold forces them to seek food.

Check out 15 outstanding pictures of owls.

Rough-Legged Hawk

what do hawks eatLarry Keller, Lititz Pa./Getty Images
Look for rough-legged hawks hunting in winter

Another species to look for is the rough-legged hawk, a regular winter migrant throughout the U.S. You’ll find these small-mammal specialists in open farmlands and prairies. Their dark bellies and large black patches on the underwing make them easy to pick out, even in flight. On long winter drives, rough-legged hawks can be the only signs of life at times.

Check out these must-visit hawk migration hotspots.

Snowy Owl

snowy owl in flight, raptor birdCourtesy Jennifer Christensen
Snowy owl migration habits vary from year to year.

The winter habits of snowy owls are much less regular. They don’t have a classic migration pattern but instead make irruptive movements south to the northern U.S. in search of food. Snowy owls like to perch atop schools or other buildings, so keep an eye out for them.

Ken Keffer
Professional naturalist and award-winning environmental educator and author Ken Keffer has penned seven books connecting kids and the outdoors. Ken is currently on the Outdoor Writers Association of America Board of Directors. Ken was born and raised in Wyoming. He's done a little bit of everything, from monitoring small mammals in Grand Teton National Park to researching flying squirrels in southeast Alaska. Ken enjoys birding, floating on lazy rivers, fly fishing, and walking his dog.