Downy vs Hairy Woodpecker: How to Tell the Difference
These black and white woodpecker species look quite similar. Compare a downy vs hairy woodpecker with expert identification tips.
Downy woodpeckers are among our most common backyard birds, but did you know they have a look-alike cousin: the hairy woodpecker? Identifying a downy vs hairy woodpecker can be a challenge, but once you know what to look for, it’s not so tough after all! The two woodpeckers live side by side throughout most of North America, but the downy is a more frequent backyard visitor.
Wearing remarkably similar patterns, hairy and downy woodpecker males both have a red spot on the back of the head, unlike the females shown above. When they’re not seen together like this, the size difference between them may not be obvious.
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Downy vs Hairy Woodpecker: Look at the Plumage
Smartly patterned, with a touch of red on the males, black and white downy woodpeckers and hairy woodpeckers look remarkably similar to each other. Both downies and hairies have black central tail feathers and white outer tail feathers, but there are a few sneaky clues to differentiate between the two. Downy woodpeckers have a few black bars or spots on their white outer tail feathers, while the outer tail feathers on the hairy are usually plain and unmarked.
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Size Them Up: Woodpecker Beaks
The hairy woodpecker is distinctly larger than its downy cousin—about 9 inches from the tip of its bill to the end of its tail. (To compare, the downy woodpecker is about 6 1/2 inches long.) Their size difference is surprisingly hard to see, except when they’re side by side, which doesn’t happen often.
A more reliable way to notice their size differences is to look at the shape of their bills. The downy has a tiny, stubby beak, barely as long as the distance from the front of its head to its eye. The hairy woodpecker’s bill is much longer and stronger, nearly as long as the bird’s head.
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Listen to the Call Carefully
You’ve probably heard a downy woodpecker’s call: a short, friendly pik and a high-pitched, descending whinny. The hairy woodpecker has a more attention-grabbing call: a sharp, arresting peek!, like the sound of a squeaky dog toy. Hairies also have a sharp rattle that stays at one pitch, unlike the downy woodpecker’s call.
Bird songs provided by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology.
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Observe Habitat Preferences
Consider the habitat when comparing a downy vs hairy woodpecker. Although downy and hairy woodpeckers share some of the same habitats, downy woodpeckers are more likely to be seen in suburbs and small parks. Hairy woodpeckers generally prefer heavily forested areas with large trees.
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Be Wary of Identical Fledglings
Just after they leave the nest, young downy and hairy woodpeckers can be confusing at first. While both downy and hairy woodpecker adult males have a red patch on the back of the head, fledglings have red on top instead. Sometimes, especially on young hairy woodpeckers, the patch is yellow, not red. Youngsters may have extra black marks on their sides or white back stripes.
Watch one of these confounding baby woodpeckers for a while and you’ll probably see its parents come to feed it, solving the mystery.
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3 Tips to Attract Downy and Hairy Woodpeckers
- Serve suet and suet cakes in wire mesh baskets hanging on trees or in holes drilled into logs.
- Offer peanuts and sunflower seeds in any kind of bird feeder that allows a place for tree-climbing birds to cling.
- Leave dead trees standing, as long as they don’t pose a safety hazard. Cavity-nesting woodpeckers will reward you with a visit.
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